Skin structure and layers of the skin | Bepanthen Ointment

Your skin’s structure

We wouldn’t be who we are without our skin. It protects us from the outside world, maintains our body temperature, creates essential vitamin D, and helps us interact with the people we love. But it’s also sensitive and needs our care and attention to stay healthy.
The structure of your skin

Our skin is made up of three distinct parts:

  • The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin. The stratum corneum is the most external part of the epidermis and serves as a physical barrier, protecting the body against external aggressions such as cold temperatures, UV light, and infections. The rest of the epidermis mostly serves the role of producing the skin barrier.
  • The dermis, the middle layer, contains the blood vessels which supply the outer layer. The dermis also contains hair follicles, sweat glands, and nerve endings.
  • The hypodermis, the deepest layer and the thickest part of the skin, contains fat cells. These form an energy reserve and allow the thermal regulation of the body.
Parent applying barrier cream to baby's arms and hands.

 The role of the skin

Our skin is the body’s biggest organ, and it performs many functions. Its major role is protection, including protection against physical aggressors such as friction, chemicals, and infection, as well as against harmful UV rays.
Beyond protecting against external forces, it’s also our largest sensory organ. We receive lots of information about the world through the nerve endings in our skin. These experiences range from heat, cold, and pain to the comforting touch of friends and loved ones.

Another major role of the skin is temperature regulation. Our skin contains about 2-5 million sweat glands, and we can sweat up to 10 or more litres per day in hot climates to help our bodies cool down. When it’s cold, sweat production and blood supply to the skin is reduced to conserve heat in deeper organs.

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